M.A.S. Messier Album

This is a collection of the members photographs / CCD images that have been compiled into a Messier Album.

The album is not complete, but these images show just how the objects actually appear on amateurs photographs, and not what the Hubble Space Telescope can produce. Note that in a lot of cases these images were taken near or in built up areas with lots of light pollution. Many were also taken with modest equipment, in some cases with out using a telescope.

To view a larger image, just click on the small image or icon. All downloaded images are in the JPEG format.

For more details on the image see "Image Details", if available.


Messier Index

M1 | M2 | M3 | M5 | M6 | M7 | M8 | M11 | M13 | M17 | M20 | M22 | M27 | M31 | M32 | M33 | M34 | M35 | M36 | M37 | M38 | M39 | M42 | M43 | M44 | M45 | M51 | M52 | M53 | M57 | M64 | M76 | M79 | M81 | M82 | M83 | M101 | M103 | M104 | M106 | M110


Messier Objects listed by Type

Open Clusters

M6 | M7 | M11 | M35 | M34 | M36 | M37 | M38 | M39 | M44 | M45 | M52 | M103

Globular Clusters

M2 | M3 | M5 | M13 | M22 | M53 | M79

Galaxies

M31 | M32 | M33 | M51 | M64 | M81 | M82 | M83 | M101 | M104 | M106 | M110

Nebulae

M8 | M17 | M20 | M42 | M43

Planetary Nebulae

M27 | M57 | M76

M1 Supernova Remnant in Taurus

M1 Image M1 (NGC 1952) This is the famous "Crab" nebula, which is an expanding cloud of gas from a bright supernova observed in A.D. 1054 by Oriental astronomers. The total light from the Crab nebula is equivalent to an 8th-9th magnitude star, with an angular size of 6 x 4 minutes of arc. In the center of the M1 is a 16th magnitude star that is the collapsed core of the supernova, now classed as a pulsar, which emits a pulse in radio, X-ray and optical wavelengths. every 0.033 of a second. Image Details


M1, by Ray Grover

Index


M2 Globular cluster in Aquarius

M2 Image M2 (NGC 7089) This cluster is a collection of several hundred thousand stars in a volume of space about 175 light years across. It is located roughly 50,000 light years away. At low power the object appears as a round and uniformly bright disk, raising the power to around 100x allows more details to be seen and individual stars will be resolved in telescopes of 6 inches and greater. The object's angular diameter is about 12 arc minutes. Image Details


M2, by by Ray Grover

Index


M3 Globular cluster in Canes Venatici

M3 Image M3 (NGC 5272). The approximate angular diameter is 10 minutes of arc, but this will vary depending on what equipment is used to make the observation. Its distance from us about 30,000 light years and has total visual magnitude of about 6.4. Image Details


M3, by by Ray Grover

Index


M5 Globular cluster in Serpens

M5 Image M5 (NGC 5904) A fine example of a globular cluster, discovered in 1702 by Gottfried Kirch. Charles Messier charted this cluster some 62 yrs later. The total light of M5 is equal to approx. 6th magnitude. M5 contains a large number of variable stars, approx. 100 have been recorded. Image Details


M5, by Kathleen Ollerenshaw

Index


M6 & M7 Open clusters in Scorpius

M6-7 Image M6 (NGC 6405) & M7 (NGC 6475) A pair of clusters separated by about 3 degrees, observed and noted by Messier on May 23rd, 1764. Both clusters contain about 80 stars, although there are more bright ones in M7, which is 1 degree across and visible to the naked eye. M6 is about half the size and contains a bright red variable BM Scorpii, which contrasts nicely with the blue of the other stars. Image Details


M6 & M7, by Ray Grover

Index


M8 Nebula in Sagittarius

M8 Image M8 (NGC 6523) The famous Lagoon nebula is about 1 degree in size, visible to the naked eye and a good object for binocular viewing. The red nebulosity is emitted by a cloud of ionised hydrogen which is excited by the hot star 9 Sagittarii which lies within. The nebula contains dark globules of dust which may be contracting into new stars. Image Details


M8, by Ray Grover

Index


M11 Open cluster in Scutum

M11 Image M11 (NGC 6705) The common name for the object is the "Wild Duck Cluster". It is a very rich and compact open cluster. It contains over 600 stars brighter than 15th magnitude and covers an area about 12 minutes of arc across. Image Details


M11, by Joe Billington

Index


M13 Globular cluster in Hercules

M13 Image M13 (NGC 6205) Discovered by Edmond Halley in 1714, M13 is one of the finest globular clusters in the Northern Hemisphere. It is also one of the nearest, at approx. 25,000 light-years distant.


CCD image of M13, by Kathleen Ollerenshaw

M13 Image Image Details


M13, by Ray Grover

Index


M17 Nebula and Cluster in Sagittarius

M17 Image M17 (NGC 6618) Called the Omega, Horseshoe or Swan nebula because of its shape, M17 is a cloud of ionised hydrogen surrounding a small cluster of stars, within a large and loose cluster spread over half a degree of sky. Image Details


M17, by Ray Grover

Index


M20 Nebula in Sagittarius

M20 Image M20 (NGC 6514) Common name the "Trifid Nebula", named for it's 3 lobed appearance. It is very large extending nearly 1/2 a deg across. Image Details


M20, by Joe Billington

Index


M22 Globular Cluster in Sagittarius

M22 Image M22 (NGC 6656). This is a splendid globular cluster which rivals M13. It is a very large bright cluster containing a great many stars, over 25 of which are known to be variables. M22 is about 10,000 light years distant, about 20 seconds of arc across and emits light equivalent to a 6th mag star. Image Details


M22, by Ray Grover

Index


M27 (The Dumbbell Nebula) Planetary Nebula in Vulpecula.

M27 M27 (NGC 6853) This has a characteristic hourglass or dumbbell shape hence it's common name. Longer exposures reveals more of the nebula giving it a more circular shape. There is another Messier object with a similar shape called M76 in Perseus commonly called the "Little Dubbell". M27 has an apparent size of 8 x 4 minutes of arc and is about as bright as an 8th mag star.


M27, by Ray Grover

M27 M27 (NGC 6853) Image Details


M27, by Dame Kathleen Ollerenshaw

Index


M31 The Great Andromeda Galaxy

M31 M31 (NGC 224) is a member of the local group of galaxies and is about 2.2 light-years away. This is a very large galaxy with an actual diameter of 110,000 light-years which covers about 2.5 deg in the sky, that's 5 times the diameter of the moon ! Image Details Two other galaxies can be found next to M31, these are M32 and M110


M31, by Michael Oates

Index


M32 Galaxy in Andromeda

M32 M32 (NGC 221) is an 8.7 magnitude elliptical galaxy that is a companion to M31. M32 is 3 minutes of arc across and located 24 minutes of arc South of M31's core. Image Details


M32, by Michael Oates

Index


M33 Galaxy in Triangulum

M33 M33 (NGC 598) is a member of the local group of galaxies. It is a large galaxy covering about 1 deg of sky, but due to it's large size and very low surface brightness it is a very difficult object to observe. Image Details


M33, by Michael Oates

M33


M33, by Ray Grover

Index


M34 Open Star Cluster in Perseus

M34 M34 (NGC 1039) at under 20 arc minutes across can just be seen with the naked eye. It consists of approx. 80 stars.


M34, by Michael Oates

Index


M35 Open Star Cluster in Gemini

M35 Image M35 (NGC 2168) This cluster has a visual magnitude of 5.3 and contains about 120 stars brighter than mag. 13. Very close to M35 is a compact cluster NGC 2158, this is much fainter at 12th magnitude. Image Details


M35, by Joe Billington

Index


M36 Open Star Cluster in Auriga

M36 M36 (NGC 1960) Contains about 60 stars with magnitudes 9 to 14. The cluster extends about 12 minutes of arc. Nearby in Auriga there are 2 other Messier open clusters. M37 & M38.


M36, by Michael Oates

Index


M37 Open Star Cluster in Auriga

M37 M37 (NGC 2099) One of finest open clusters in the sky, with in excess of 500 stars, with 150 of those brighter than mag 12.5. It is approx. 20 minutes of arc across. Nearby in Auriga there are 2 other Messier open clusters. M36 & M38.


M37, by Michael Oates

Index


M38 Open Star Cluster in Auriga

M38 M38 (NGC 1912) About the same apparent dia as M37 but much more open, with fewer stars. Nearby in Auriga there are 2 other Messier open clusters. M36 & M37.


M38, by Michael Oates

Index


M39 Open Star Cluster in Cygnus

M39 M39 (NGC 7092) is a very open cluster which covers 30 minutes of arc and consists of mag 7 - 10 stars. It is located about 10 deg east and a little to the north of Deneb. M39 is one of the nearest clusters at approx 900 light-years away.


M39, by Michael Oates

Index


M42 & M43 Nebula in Orion

M42 Image M42 (NGC 1976) & M43 (NGC 1982) Image Details


M42 & M43, by Joe Billington

Index


M44 Open Star Cluster in Cancer

M44 M44 (NGC 2632) The Praesepe or Beehive cluster can be seen with the naked eye as a faint smudge about 1 deg across, and about as bright as a mag 4.5 star. M44 is one of the nearest open clusters at about 500 light years distant. A fine sight in binoculars.


M44, by Ray Grover

Index


M45 (The Pleiades) Open Star Cluster in Taurus.

M45 The Pleiades (common name the Severn Sisters) observed by naked eye most people can see 6 to 8 stars, but with a telescope several hundred can be seen. This is a very common subject for amateurs to photograph. Long exposures can reveal the wispy nebulosity that is associated with this cluster.


M45, by Michael Oates

Index


M51 Galaxy in Canes Venatici

M51 M51 (NGC 5194) The Whirlpool galaxy as it is commonly known has a companion galaxy NGC 5195 to the North. The spiral structure of M51 was first seen by the Earl of Rosse, with a 72-inch reflector in 1845. This is one of the finest galaxies that can be seen in amateurs telescopes.


M51, by Ray Grover

Index


M52 Open Star Cluster in Cassiopeia.

M52 M52 (NGC 7654) An Open cluster with about 200 stars brighter than 15th mag. This cluster lies about 7000 light-years away.


M52, by Michael Oates

Index


M53 Globular cluster in Coma Berenices

M53 Image M53 (NGC 5024) About 3.3 minutes of arc across and about 60,000 light years away.


M53, by Kathleen Ollerenshaw

Index


M57 (The Ring Nebula) Planetary Nebula in Lyra.

M57 M57 (NGC 6720) or the more common name "The Ring Nebula" is easily found, located between Beta and Gamma Lyrae. It is about 1 minute of arc accross and about the same brightness as a mag 9 star.


M57, by Kathleen Ollerenshaw

Index


M64 Galaxy in Coma Berenices

M64 Image M64 (NGC 4826) has a total visual magnitude of about 8.5 and has extends 6 x 3 minutes on photographs. It is often called the "Black Eye Galaxy" due to the dark feature near the centre.


M64, by Kathleen Ollerenshaw

Index


M76 Planetary Nebula in Perseus.

M76 M76 (NGC 650-1) Some times known as the "Small Dumbell" as it has a simular shape to M27. William Herschel called M76 a double nebula, hence the two NGC numbers allocated to it. This is one of the faintest of the Messier objects, with a total brightness equivalent to a 10 - 11th mag star. Image Details


M76, by Michael Oates

Index


M79 Globular cluster in Lepus

M79 Image M79 (NGC 1904) is an 8th magnitude object about 3 minutes of arc across. Image Details


M79, by Joe Billington

Index


M81 Galaxy in Ursa Major

M81 M81 (NGC 3031) has a visual magnitude of about 7.9 and photographically of 8.4. It can extend to 21 by 10 minutes of arc on long exposure photographs. Another galaxy M82 lies close by in the sky, as depicted in this photograph.


M81, by Michael Oates

Index


M82 Galaxy in Ursa Major

M82 M82 (NGC 3034) is an irregular galaxy of about mag 9, and extends about 9 by 4 minutes of arc.


M82, by Michael Oates

M82 Image Details


M82, by Ray Grover

Index


M83 Galaxy in Hydra

M83 M83 (NGC 5236) A galaxy seen nearly face on, at about 7th magnitude. Image Details


M83, by Ray Grover

Index


M101(M102) Galaxy in Ursa Major

M101 M101 (NGC 5457) This is a large spiral galaxy seen face on. It has a total brightness of an 8th mag star and anout 22 arc minutes in diameter on photographs. Due to an error this galaxy was also called M102 in the 18th century. Image Details


M101, by Ray Grover

Index


M103 Open Star Cluster in Cassiopeia

M103 M103 (NGC 581) has an apparent diameter of about 6 minutes of arc, containing around 40 stars brighter than mag 14. M103 has a total magnitude of about 6.2.


M103, by Michael Oates

Index


M104 Galaxy in Virgo

M104 M104 (NGC 4594) The common name for this galaxy is the "Sombrero", due to its large central bulge and dark rim of dust. It is seen nearly edge on, with its equatorial plane tipped 6 deg to our line of sight. The dust rim can be seen on this photograph.


M104, by Ray Grover

Index


M106 Galaxy in Canes Venatici

M106 M106 (NGC 4258) This was not included in the original 103 object Messier catalogue, but was logged by him and his colleague Pierre Mechain. It was added to the catalogue in 1947 by Helen Sawyer Hogg. It is a spiral galaxy that covers an area of 19 x 8 minutes of arc (on long exposure photographs). Its total light is equivalent to an 8th magnitude star.


M106, by Ray Grover

Index


M110 Galaxy in Andromeda

M110 M110 (NGC 205) is an 8th magnitude galaxy that is a companion to M31. M110 is 10 minutes of arc across. This is the most recent addition to the Messier catalogue. It was seen by Messier in 1773 but he did not put it in his catalogue. This was done many years later in 1967. Image Details


M110, by Michael Oates

Index


Image Details


M1 Supernova Remnant in Taurus

Date:       21 Sept 1993
Exposure:   30 mins

Equipment:  12" f5 Newtonian, prime focus
Film:       3M 1000
Site:       COAA, Portugal
M1 by Ray Grover

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M2 Globular cluster in Aquarius

Date:       9 Aug 1994
Time:       23:00 UT
Exposure:   15 mins

Equipment:  12" f5 Newtonian
Film:       Ektachrome 400
Site:       COAA, Portugal
M2 by Ray Grover

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M3 Globular cluster in Canes Venatici

Date:       8 Aug 1994
Time:       21:45 UT
Exposure:   10 mins

Equipment:  12" f5 Newtonian
Film:       Ektachrome 400
Site:       COAA, Portugal
M3 by Ray Grover

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M5 Globular cluster in Serpens

The image shown here is a CCD image taken with the Starlight Xpress CCD camera. The telescope used was a Meade LX2000 10" with an f6.3 focal reducer. Exposure time was just under 1 min.

M5, by Kathleen Ollerenshaw

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M6 & M7 Open clusters in Scorpius

Date:       7 Aug 1994
Time:       23:05 UT
Exposure:   10 mins

Equipment:  300mm f4 Pentacon lens on SP mount
Film:       Ektachrome 400
Site:       COAA, Portugal
M6 and M7 by Ray Grover

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M8 Nebula in Sagittarius

Date:       17 Sept 1993
Time:       not recorded
Exposure:   10 mins

Equipment:  12" f5 Newtonian, hand guided
Film:       Agfa 1000 RS, copied onto Ektachrome 200
Site:       COAA, Portugal
M8, by Ray Grover

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M11 Open cluster in Scutum

Photograph taken from Portugal at the C.O.A.A. using the 12" f5 telescope.

Exposure:  10 min
Film:      Scotch 3M 1000 ASA

M11, by Joe Billington

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M13 Globular cluster in Hercules

Date:       9 Aug 1994
Time:       22:40 UT
Exposure:   15 mins

Equipment:  12" f5 Newtonian
Film:       Ektachrome 400
Site:       COAA, Portugal
M13 by Ray Grover

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M17 Nebula and Cluster in Sagittarius

Date:       6 Aug 1994
Time:       21:40 UT
Exposure:   20 mins

Equipment:  12" f5 Newtonian, hand guided
Film:       Scotch 400, pushed 1 stop
Site:       COAA, Portugal
M17, by Ray Grover

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M20 Nebula in Sagittarius

Photograph taken from Portugal at the C.O.A.A. using the 12" f5 telescope.

Exposure:   20 min
Film:       Scotch 3M 1000 ASA

M20, by Joe Billington

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M22 Globular Cluster in Sagittarius

Date:       17 Sept 1993
Time:       22:40 UT
Exposure:   10 mins

Equipment:  12" f5 Newtonian, prime focus.
Film:       Agfa 1000RS
Site:       COAA, Portugal
M22 by Ray Grover

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M27 (The Dumbbell Nebula) Planetary Nebula in Vulpecula.

Date:       10th June 96
Exposure:   5 mins

Equipment:  300mm f4 telephoto lens 
            Color Starlight XPress Camera
Site:       COAA, Portugal
M3 by Dame Kathleen Ollerenshaw

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M31 Galaxy in Andromeda

(ref. A22-2)

Date:      25th Sept 1987
Time:      22:15 UT
Exposure:  45 min

Equipment: 300mm FL f4.5 telephoto lens (Zenith)
Film:      Kodak Tec Pan 2415
Developed: D19 for 8min @ 20 deg C
Site:      Prestwich, Manchester. England.

M31, by Michael Oates

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M32 Galaxy in Andromeda

(ref. A22-2)

Date:      25th Sept 1987
Time:      22:15 UT
Exposure:  45 min

Equipment: 300mm FL f4.5 telephoto lens (Zenith)
Film:      Kodak Tec Pan 2415
Developed: D19 for 8min @ 20 deg C
Site:      Prestwich, Manchester. England.

M32, by Michael Oates

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M33 Galaxy in Triangulum

This image was produced from 2 separate exposures which were sandwiched together in the enlarger to make the print.

Exposure 1 (ref. A27-4)
Exposure 2 (ref. A28-1)
Equipment:  300mm FL f4.5 telephoto lens (Zenith)
Film:       Kodak Tec Pan 2415
Developed:  D19 for 8min @ 20 deg C
Site:       Prestwich, Manchester. England. (a light polluted area)

Notes:

The camera was mounted on a home made equatorial drive, motor driven on both axis. Guiding was undertaken with a 50mm refractor. The first exposure was stopped due to nearby house lights being switch on.

By combining 2 negatives the resulting image is both better defined and shows less grain.

M33, by Michael Oates

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M35 Open Star Cluster in Gemini

Photograph taken from Portugal at the C.O.A.A. using the 12" f5 telescope.

Exposure:   20 min
Film:       Scotch 3M 1000 ASA

M35, by Joe Billington

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M42 & M43 Nebula in Orion

Photograph taken from Portugal at the C.O.A.A. using the 12" f5 telescope.

Exposure:   10 min
Film:       Scotch 3M 1000 ASA

M42, by Joe Billington

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M76 Planetary Nebula in Perseus

(ref. A22-6)

Date:      26th Sept 1987
Time:      01:38 UT
Exposure:  15 min

Equipment: 300mm FL f4.5 telephoto lens (Zenith)
Film:      Kodak Tec Pan 2415
Developed: D19 for 8min @ 20 deg C
Site:      Prestwich, Manchester. England.
M76, by Michael Oates

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M79 Globular cluster in Lepus

Photograph taken from Portugal at the C.O.A.A. using the 12" f5 telescope.

Exposure:   10 min
Film:       Scotch 3M 1000 ASA

M79, by Joe Billington

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M82 Galaxy in Ursa Major

Date:       26 May 1995
Time:       10:10 UT
Exposure:   20 mins

Equipment:  12" f5 Newtonian
Film:       Kodak Panther 1600
Site:       COAA, Portugal
M82 by Ray Grover

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M83 Galaxy in Hydra

Date:       30 May 1995
Time:       23:13 UT
Exposure:   10 mins

Equipment:  20" f4.5 Newtonian
Film:       Kodak Panther 1600
Site:       COAA, Portugal
M83 by Ray Grover

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M101 Galaxy in Ursa Major

Date:       28 May 1995
Exposure:   25 mins

Equipment:  12" f5 Newtonian
Film:       Kodak Panther 1600
Site:       COAA, Portugal
M101 by Ray Grover

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M110 Galaxy in Andromeda

(ref. A22-2)

Date:      25th Sept 1987
Time:      22:15 UT
Exposure:  45 min

Equipment: 300mm FL f4.5 telephoto lens (Zenith)
Film:      Kodak Tec Pan 2415
Developed: D19 for 8min @ 20 deg C
Site:      Prestwich, Manchester. England.
M110, by Michael Oates

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Page modified 28 March, 2007